Science & Technology
What does the word "science" mean in the context of the Ancient Near East? The concept of "science" was shaped in the context of modern industrial societies. This concept is poorly suited to reflect the realities of Antiquity. Moreover, the ancient scholarly practices are so varied across regions, eras, milieus, and so on, that it is difficult to describe them all as belonging to a unified thought pattern as suggested by the use of the word "science". Here the word "science" encompasses various written productions emanating from learned circles linked, for example, to scribal schools, temples, royal courts, professions or administration. Somehow arbitrarily, areas of knowledge considered here are mathematics, astral science, medicine, divination, lexical texts, school texts, and practical texts of theoretical nature.